Computer memory:-It is any physical device capable of storing information temporarily or permanently. In others words Memory is internal storage areas in the computer system. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips, and the word storage is used for memory that exists on tapes or disks. Moreover, the term memory is usually used as a shorthand for physical memory, which refers to the actual chips capable of holding data. Some computers also use virtual memory, which expands physical memory onto a hard disk.
Types of computer memory:-There are many type and sub type of computer memory. Memory is the best essential element of a computer because computer can’t perform simple tasks. The performance of computer mainly based on memory and CPU. Memory is internal storage media of computer that has several names such as majorly categorized into two types, Main memory and Secondary memory.
1. Primary Memory / Volatile Memory:
Primary Memory also called as volatile memory because the memory can’t store the data permanently. Primary memory select any part of memory when user want to save the data in memory but that may not be store permanently on that location. It also has another name i.e. RAM.
Random Access Memory (RAM):
The primary storage is referred to as random access memory (RAM) due to the random selection of memory locations. It performs both read and write operations on memory. If power failures happened in systems during memory access then you will lose your data permanently. So, RAM is volatile memory. RAM categorized into following types.
2. Secondary Memory / Non Volatile Memory:
Secondary memory is external and permanent memory that is useful to store the external storage media such as floppy disk, magnetic disks, magnetic tapes and etc cache devices. Secondary memory deals with following types of components.
Read Only Memory (ROM) :
ROM is permanent memory location that offer huge types of standards to save data. But it work with read only operation. No data lose happen whenever power failure occur during the ROM memory work in computers.
ROM memory has several models such names are following.
1. PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) maintains large storage media but can’t offer the erase features in ROM. This type of memory maintains PROM chips to write data once and read many. The programs or instructions designed in PROM can’t be erased by other programs.
2. EPROM : Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory designed for recover the problems of PROM and ROM. Users can delete the data of EPROM thorough pass on ultraviolet light and it erases chip is reprogrammed.
3. EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory similar to the EPROM but it uses electrical beam for erase the data of ROM.
Cache Memory:- Main memory less than the access time of CPU so, the performance will decrease through less access time. Speed mismatch will decrease through maintain cache memory. Main memory can store huge amount of data but the cache memory normally kept small and low expensive cost. All types of external media like Magnetic disks, Magnetic drives and etc store in cache memory to provide quick access tools to the users.